1 big reason, why to choose Long Lead Item as a “Focused Activity”?

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Construction Procurement, Procurement Strategy, Long Lead Item, Gas Process Facility Construction, Sensitivity Analysis, Monte Carlo Analysis, Procurement Risk,  Distribution Graph, Cumulative distribution graph, Quantitative Schedule Risk Analysis, Quantitative Cost Risk Analysis


In mega complex project, managing risk is a necessity to ensure that your project is not derailed by unexpected events.

The world of construction procurement is a complex one. New processes, regulation, complex supply chain and complicated standards are popping up rapidly, making it difficult for construction companies and even for clients to stay on top for smooth execution.

Procurement (including contracts) is a key focus activity, especially the long lead items. Project schedule provides only a deterministic value. What if there is a delay in delivery of Long Lead Items to a site?

The distribution graph is showing, there is only a thirty three percent chance to meet the target date. If the anticipated risks occur, then What will happen? Of course, the construction, pre-commissioning, commissioning, and operations will be delayed. It will not only hamper CAPEX, but OPEX will also be impacted.

Quantitative Schedule Risk Analysis (QSRA)

Quantitative risk analysis is a computer-based method of analyzing the probability of a risk occurring and quantifying its effect on the project. It can be used to estimate expected costs and rate schedules for various projects i.e. Quantitative Schedule Risk Analysis (QSRA) & Quantitative Cost Risk Analysis  (QCRA)

Quantitative risk analysis (QRA) is a set of techniques that helps to prioritize and manage risk within a quantitative project. QRA tools assist decision makers in identifying the most critical risks and cost drivers for their projects, enabling them to make informed decisions about the future course of action.

Quantitative risk analysis (QRA) is the process of determining how likely it is that a particular investment decision will be successful. To do this, you need to quantify the potential risk in your project and assign a probability to each risk.

Procurement of Material and Long Lead Item (LLI) - A Focused Activity

It is important to understand that the quantitative risk assessment process will allow you to determine the level of risk that your project faces. What is the probability of events occurring? How likely are things to go wrong? In order to make sound decisions about strategic direction, you must have accurate information about the risks facing your project. 

A Gas process facility is a mega complex Greenfield construction project. According to the level-I schedule; a deterministic project completion duration is 966 days. After validating schedule, validate the schedule followed by Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS). Procurement of Material and long lead item was considered as “Focused Activity.” It’s second main driver after the construction for schedule delay and cost over run.

It’s a common phrase that “Knowing Long lead Items (LLI) early will speed up the construction execution.” It’s nota reality in areal world of executing mega complex projects. There are many factors internal and external that influence timely delivery Long Lead Item (LLI) to site. Few factors are:

  • Design data
  • Purchase Requisition (PR)
  • Purchase Order (PO)
  • Shipment
  • Load and Unloading
  • Damage during shipment
  • Damage during road transportation
  • Insurance
  • Manufacturing location
  • Single source/sole source
  • Long lead Item dates are missing in schedule
  • Various versions of schedule within the project – very common in mega complex projects.
  • Date for delivery at a site
  • Shop drawing submittal
  • Date plus design data
  • Shop drawing approval data
  • Fabrication/manufacturing schedule
  • Fabrication start
  • Quality control, inspection and third party inspections
  • Manufacturing Site visit
  • FAT
  • Fabrication completion
  • Shipping Date
  • SAT
Above all the procurement process time line set by the procurement department should also be known. Normally for a mega project to issue a PO might take six (6) months.
Gleeym offers Quantitative schedule & cost risk analysis using Monte Carlo Simulation.
Fig 1 - A Cumulative Distribution Graph for a Finish Date

A Table -1 is showing percentile, cost and contingency reserved required for making risk-based decision regarding schedule. It’s the management choice to choose P50 or P80 for a cost contingency reserves. 

Table 1 for Schedule contingency reserve
Table 1- Schedule Contingency Reserve
Fig 2- A Cumulative Distribution Graph for a Cost

A Table -2 is showing percentile, cost and contingency reserved required for making risk-based decision regarding cost. It’s the management choice to choose P50 or P80 for a cost contingency reserves.

Cost Contingency Reserve
Table 2 - Cost Contingency Reserve


It’s the management choice to choose P50 or P80 for a contingency reserve. The Organization usually prefers P80. Determine the contingency reverse is the one (1) biggest reason!

During a project start the level of information is low and risk is high. Therefore, it is recommended to run the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) at the beginning of project phase or before gate approval of a previous phase. It will support management to make a decision under uncertainty. A monte Carlo simulation is a requirement for making risk-based decision. It’s not optional!


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